First launched Satellite by ISRO
The first satellite made by the Indian scientists of ISRO(Indian Space Research Organisation) was Aryabhata. It was an unmanned satellite. This satellite was named after Aryabhata, the great Indian astronomer. The satellite was launched on the date of April 19, 1975. The satellite was launched from Kapustin Yar, a Russian rocket launch AND development site, in Astrakhan Oblast. It was launched using the launch vehicle Kosmos-3M. And it was a proud moment for the Indians. It was mainly created to conduct experiments in aeronomics, solar physics, and X-Ray astronomy. The spacecraft was a polyhedron of 26 sides and was 1.4 meters in diameter. Aryabhata weighed 360 kilograms. Except for the top and bottom face, all faces were covered with solar cells. On 11 Feb 1992 the satellite reentered the Earth’s atmosphere.
First launched Satellite from India
Aryabhata was indeed the first satellite, but it was launched from Russia. But the first satellite launched from India by ISRO was SLV-3E1. It was launched on 3rd August 1979. It was launched under the Rohini Technology Payload. SLV could reach a height of 400 Km and could carry a payload of 40 Kg. It was marked as an experimental flight. But the first launch was unsuccessful. After a few minutes of launch, it fell into the Bay of Bengal. But the second launch was successful. This successful launch occurred on 18 July 1980. This launch was also marked as experimental and was launched under the Rohini Technology Payload.
Under the Rohini Technology Payload, 4 launches took place. The 4th launch occurred on 17 April 1983. The 3rd and 4th launch were marked as developmental. They were marked as such because the devices were not meant for long service life. It was all solid and was a 4 stage vehicle. It weighed about 17 tonnes and had a height of 22 m. It was capable of placing 40 Kg class payloads in Low Earth Orbit also known as LEO. These successful launches took place under the guidance of Satish Dhawan, chairman of ISRO.Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam was also a prominent part of the team. The successful launch of the SLV paved the way for various new projects such as Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV), Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle(ASLV), and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle(GSLV). The SLV-3 was India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle.
And from that point, ISRO has come across a long journey.on December 16, 2015, ISRO celebrated its 50th launch from Sriharikota at the Satish Dhawan Space Center(SDSC).On 22nd October 2008, ISRO launched the Lunar Orbiter, Chandrayan-1. It discovered Lunar water in the form of ice. Then on 5 November, 2013 ISRO sent their Mars Orbiter Mission, which entered the Mars orbit on 24 September 2014. And with this India became the first nation to enter Mars in the first attempt and also Asia’s first country to reach Mars orbit.on 15 February 2017, ISRO launched 104 satellites in one rocket, which is a world record. And on 22 July 2019, ISRO launched its second Lunar mission Chandrayan-2, which was unfortunately not fully successful. But ISRO has many other upcoming projects and with those ISRO will surely create more benchmarks.